Về chữ “dù” (và “dầu”) trong truyện Kiều

Độc giả trẻ thời nay không ít người sẽ hết sức ngạc nhiên khi phát hiện ra rằng Truyện Kiều, thiên tiểu thuyết bằng thơ dài tới 3.254 câu với cả thảy 22.778 lượt dùng từ, nhưng lại chẳng hề có qua một chữ NẾU nào, tuy rằng nghĩa “ĐIỀU KIỆN” và/hay “GIẢ ĐỊNH”, vốn được diễn đạt bằng NẾU (hoặc các biểu thức ngôn từ tương đương) trong tiếng Việt đương đại là một trong những nghĩa phổ quát (tức mọi thứ tiếng đều có) và ít thấy một thứ tiếng nào lại vắng các phương tiện riêng để biểu thị.

Một câu hỏi tất được đặt ra: Vậy Nguyễn Du (cũng như người thời ông) đã phải xoay xở ra sao trong tình cảnh “eo hẹp” về phương tiện diễn đạt như thế?

1. Trả lời câu hỏi vừa nêu, nhà ngữ học Cao Xuân Hạo có đưa ra một giả định: để diễn đạt mấy nghĩa vừa nhắc, Nguyễn Du (và chắc mọi người thời ông đều thế) đã phải dùng DẦU (hay DÙ - dạng song lập của DẦU) làm phương tiện thay thế(1).

Tiếp theo đây, chúng ta hãy cùng nhau đọc lại Truyện Kiều để nghiệm xem mức độ xác thực của điều giả định vừa nhắc.

Theo học giả Đào Duy Anh(2), trong kiệt tác Truyện Kiều, thi hào đã dùng cả thảy 29 lần chữ DẦU (/DÙ). Ngoài dẫn chứng được đích thân tác giả của điều giả định vừa nhắc đưa ra để minh hoạ:

(1) - Mai sau DẦU [=NẾUcó bao giờ (741),(3)
Đốt lò hương ấy, so tơ phím này,
Trông ra ngọn cỏ lá cây

Thấy hiu hiu gió thì hay chị về;
ta còn gặp các trường hợp sau:

(2) - “DẦU [=NẾUkhi lá thắm chỉ hồng [333],
Nên chăng thì cũng tại lòng mẹ cha” .

(3) - [Sinh rằng: “Rày gió mai mưa,
Ngày xuân đã dễ tình cờ mấy khi].
DẦU [=NẾUchăng xét tấm tình si [339],
Thiệt đây mà có ích gì đến ai?”

(4) - “Khuôn thiêng DẦU [=NẾU] phụ tấc thành [343],
Cũng liều bỏ quá xuân xanh một đời”.

(5) - “Lượng xuân DẦU [=NẾU] quyết hẹp hòi [345],
Công đeo đuổi chẳng thiệt thòi lắm ru!”

(6) - “DẦU [=NẾU] em nên vợ nên chồng [737],
Xót người mệnh bạc ắt lòng chẳng quên”.

(7) - Trùng phùng DÙ [=NẾU] hoạ có khi [795],
Thân này thôi có ra gì mà mong.

(8) - Sau DẦU [=NẾU] sinh sự thế nào [861],
Truy nguyên chẳng kẻo lụy vào song thân.

(9) - [=NẾU]Nàng DÙ quyết chẳng thuận tình [2111],
Trái lời nẻo trước lụy mình đến sau”.

(10) - [“Thiếp như con én lạc đàn,
“Phải cung rày đã sợ làn cây cong
].
“Cùng đường DÙ [=NẾU] tính chữ tòng[2119],
Biết người, biết mặt, biết lòng làm sao ?

(11) - [“Nữa khi muôn một thế nào,
“Bán hùm buôn sói chắc vào lưng đâu ?]
DÙ [=NẾU] lòng ai có sở cầu [2123]
“Tâm minh xin quyết với nhau một lời.
“Chứng minh có đất có trời,
“Bấy giờ vượt bể ra khơi quản gì”.


(12) -Duyên em DẦU [=NẾU] nối chỉ hồng[2243],
May ra khi đã tay bồng tay mang.


(13) - “Giác Duyên DÙ [=NẾU] nhớ nghĩa nhau[2691],
“Tiền Đường thả một bè lau cứu người […].

(14) -“[=NẾU] Chàng DÙ nghĩ đến tình xa[3110],
Đem tình cầm sắc đổi ra cầm cờ.”

(15) - “Cửa nhà DÙ [=NẾU] tính về sau [3159],
Thì còn em đó lọ cầu chị đây […]

(16) - “Mai sau DẦU [=NẾU] đến thế nào [905],
Kìa gương nhật nguyệt nọ dao quỷ thần”.

(17) - DÙ [=NẾU] khi gió kép mưa đơn, [1111]
Có ta đây cũng chẳng cơn cớ gì!”.

(18) - [“Đôi ta chút nghĩa đèo bòng,
Đến nhà trước liệu nói sòng cho minh].
DÙ khi sóng gió bất tình [1511]
Lớn ra uy lớn tôi đành phận tôi”.

2. Bên cạnh 1 + 17 trường hợp vừa nêu, cặp từ này dĩ nhiên còn được dùng với cái nghĩa vốn có của nó(4), như:

(18) - “Thà rằng liều một thân con.
“Hoa DÙ rã cánh lá còn xanh cây” [678].

(19) - “Ví DÙ giải kết đến điều [421],
Thì đem vàng đá mà liều với thân”.

(20) - “Phận rầu DẦU vậy cũng dầu [697]
Xót lòng đeo đẳng bấy lâu một lời”

(21) - “Chị DÙ thịt nát xương mòn [733],
Ngậm cười chín suối hãy còn thơm lây”,

(22) - Sự mình nàng mới gót đầu bày ngay:
“Bây giờ sự đã dường này,
Phận hèn DÙ rủi DÙ may tại người”
. [2072]

3. Tuy nhiên, để bức tranh thật hoàn chỉnh, chắc hẳn chúng ta còn phải kể thêm dăm trường hợp nữa, trong đó thi hào sử dụng hai từ này hoặc là riêng rẻ một mình, hoặc là kết hợp với MẶC/LÒNG để diễn đạt cái nghĩa đại để Để tự ý, không can dự vào hoặc không buồn để ý gì tới:

(23) - “Phận rầu dầu vậy cũng DẦU [697]
Xót lòng đeo đẳng bấy lâu một lời”

(24) - “Sắm sanh nếp tử xe châu,
Vùi nông một nấm MẶC DẦU cỏ hoa”
[78]

(25) - Trong tay đã sẵn đồng tiền,
DẦU LÒNG đổi trắng thay đen khó gì
![690]

(26) - Phu nhân khen chước rất mầu,
Chiều con mới dạy MẶC DẦU ra tay
[1622]

(27) -[“Này chàng Bạc Hạnh cháu nhà,
“Cũng trong thân thích ruột rà chẳng ai.
“Cửa hàng buôn bán châu Thai,
“Thật thà có một đơn sai chẳng hề.
“Thế nào nàng cũng phải nghe,
“Thành thân rồi sẽ liệu về châu Thai
].
“Bấy giờ ai lại biết ai,
“DẦU LÒNG bể rộng sông dài thênh thênh
[2110].

Và một trường hợp duy nhất, trong đó DẦU được dùng dưới dạng láy :

(28) - Thuốc thang suốt một ngày thâu
Giấc mê nghe đã DẦU DẦU vừa tan.
[1002]

Tiếc thay, mấy trường hợp này hình như đã bị học giả Đào Duy Anh bỏ quên chưa cắt nghĩa rõ. Điều đó đã khiến chúng tôi hết sức lúng túng, chưa biết phải diễn giải ra sao cho tương thích.

4. Từ những gì vừa trình bày, chúng ta có thể đi đến một kết luận nhỏ: Phản ánh thật đầy đủ và chân xác cách dùng từ của Nguyễn Du có lẽ đang là một thách thức không hề đơn giản chút nào đối với người biên soạn một pho từ điển Truyện Kiều hoàn hảo./.

 

 

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