Thẩm quyền ký kết hợp đồng lao động trong doanh nghiệp

Doanh nghiệp, Công ty là một tổ chức có nhiều chủ thể như chủ sở hữu Công ty, Người sử dụng lao động, Người lao động….Một Công ty cổ phần thì mọi vị trí đều có thể thuê thì kể cả Chủ tịch Hội đồng quản trị, Giám đốc Công ty….Như vậy ai sẽ là chủ thể ký kết Hợp đồng lao động với tất cả mọi người lao động trong Công ty này.

Khi giao kết hợp đồng lao động phải bảo đảm rằng các giao kết này là có hiệu lực. Về nguyên tắc, người không có thẩm quyền đại diện kí kết hợp đồng lao động sẽ không làm phát sinh trách nhiệm của DN đối với người lao động. Ngược lại, người lao động không thuộc đối tượng có thẩm quyền ký kết hợp đồng lao động thì hợp đồng lao động đã ký kết với người sử dụng lao động sẽ vô hiệu. Do vậy, trước khi ký kết hợp đồng lao động, điều quan trọng tối thiểu cần chú ý tới chính là người có thẩm quyền ký kết hợp đồng lao động. Nhất là đối với doanh nghiệp, chủ thể nào có thẩm quyền ký hợp đồng lao động với người lao động? Đây cũng là một vướng mắc trong các doanh nghiệp hiện nay.

Hợp đồng lao động là sự thoả thuận giữa người lao động và người sử dụng lao động về việc làm có trả lương, điều kiện làm việc, quyền và nghĩa vụ của mỗi bên trong quan hệ lao động (Điều 15 Bộ luật lao động năm 2012).

Trong doanh nghiệp, ai là người có thẩm quyền ký kết hợp đồng lao động với người lao động? Theo quy định tại điểm a khoản 1 Điều 14 Thông tư 30/2013/TT-BLĐTBXH Hướng dẫn thi hành một số điều của nghị định số 44/2013/NĐ-CP ngày 10/5/2013 của Chính phủ quy định chi tiết thi hành một số điều của Bộ luật lao động về hợp đồng lao động thì  Người sử dụng lao động có thẩm quyền ký kết hợp đồng lao động bao gồm:

- Người đại diện theo pháp luật quy định tại Điều lệ của doanh nghiệp hoặc người được người đại diện theo pháp luật ủy quyền đối với doanh nghiệp hoạt động theo Luật doanh nghiệp;

- Người đại diện theo pháp luật quy định tại Điều lệ hợp tác xã, liên hiệp hợp tác xã hoặc người được người đại diện theo pháp luật ủy quyền đối với hợp tác xã, liên hiệp hợp tác xã hoạt động theo Luật hợp tác xã;

- Người đứng đầu cơ quan, đơn vị, tổ chức hoặc người được người đứng đầu cơ quan, đơn vị, tổ chức ủy quyền đối với cơ quan nhà nước, đơn vị sự nghiệp, tổ chức chính trị, tổ chức chính trị - xã hội có sử dụng lao động làm việc theo chế độ hợp đồng lao động;

- Người đứng đầu tổ chức hoặc người được người đứng đầu tổ chức ủy quyền đối với cơ quan, tổ chức, chi nhánh, văn phòng đại điện của nước ngoài hoặc quốc tế đóng tại Việt Nam;

- Chủ hộ hoặc người đại diện hộ gia đình có thuê mướn, sử dụng lao động;

- Cá nhân trực tiếp sử dụng lao động.

Như vậy, Luật pháp đã quy định cụm từ: Người sử dụng lao động và Người lao động để phân biệt một cách rất rõ nét vị trí vai trò và thẩm quyền ký kết. Trong Công ty thì người đại diện theo pháp luật của Công ty sẽ đại diện cho Công ty ký kết Hợp đồng lao động với tư cách Người sử dụng lao động. Giám đốc không phải là người sử dụng lao động mà Người đại điện theo pháp luật của Công ty sẽ đại diện cho Công ty thực hiện ký kết Hợp đồng lao động với vai trò Người sử dụng Lao động.

Xác định rõ thẩm quyền ký kết Hợp đồng lao động nhằm xác định đúng chủ thể ký kết đảm bảo hiệu lực thực hiện và tránh tranh chấp là việc làm hết sức quan trọng và cần thiết

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